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  • Eddie Norton posted an update 2 days ago

    The abundance PLX4032 molecular weight of arthropods and xylophagous was statistically significantly different. The patterns generated by non-metric multidimensional scaling in the overall arthropod community composition revealed that the species composition between study areas were significantly different. We confirmed that dead woods play very important roles as arthropods’ habitats. Thus, we suggest that the role of dead woods should be emphasized in the management of forest ecosystems. “”Larvae of mealworms Tenebrio molitor?L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have been used as animal feed, but fungal pathogens rapidly downsize the populations, resulting in economic losses. In this work, we established an effective management strategy for fungal pathogens. An entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, was isolated from mealworm cadavers. The bioassay of some isolates of this species at >90% relative humidity revealed that the ERL1575 isolate had the highest virulence. At 20�C30% RH, ERL1575 conidia when ingested produced 80% mortality but when sprayed topically produced only 95%) for 5 days. This experiment produced about 90% mortality except at 35��C where mortality was <20%. When 40 fungicides were assayed against ERL1575, fluazinam (1000-fold) and mancozeb (667-fold) significantly inhibited conidial germination and/or hyphal growth. When fluazinam and mancozeb were added to the mealworm diet of conidia-inoculated wheat bran, most were alive 3 days post application. However, 100% mortality resulted 3 days post application in the conidia-inoculated wheat bran without any fungicides. In conclusion, B.?bassiana isolates are pathogenic at <30��C when they are ingested by mealworms but fluazinam and mancozeb can be used for management to control the pathogen in their cultures. ""As web spiders usually hang with their head downward, geometrical differences in body position could affect the organization of their central nervous system (CNS). Nevertheless, most of our knowledge of spider's CNS is dependent on what has been revealed from wandering spiders. To fill the gap, we describe here the fine structural organization of the ganglionic neurons and nerves in the geometric orb web spider Nephila clavata. Nerve cells in the supraesophageal ganglion in N.?clavata are packed in the frontal, dorsal and lateral regions, but the nerve cells of the subesophageal mass are only restricted to the ventral and ventrolateral regions. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveals the fine structural details of the neuroglial cells and the neuronal cells which have a conspicuous Golgi apparatus, rough ER, free ribosomes and well-developed mitochondria.